Behaviour Change Communication in Emergencies. Manual and Tools. January Introduction to interpreting area graphs for infant and young child feeding. Updated princiles and recommendations for infant feeding in the context of HIV and a summary of evidence. Strengthening action to improve feeding of infants and young children aged monthsof age in nutrition and child health programmes. Geneva, October Report Proceedings.
Learning from large scale community-based breastfeeding programmes. Indicators for assessig infant and young child feeding programmes: Part 1 definitions. Indicators for assessing infant and young child feeding programmes: Part 2: Measurement. Indicators for assessing infant and young child feeding programmes: Part 3: Country Profiles. February Mason, J.
Other books sought to boost their credibility by reference to the French paradox. The existence of the French paradox has caused some researchers to speculate that the link between dietary consumption of saturated fats and coronary heart disease might not be as strong as had previously been imagined. This has resulted in a review of the earlier studies which had suggested this link.
Some researchers have thrown into question the entire claimed connection between natural saturated fat consumption and cardiovascular disease.
In this view received some indirect support from the results of the Nurses' Health Study run by the Women's Health Initiative. After accumulating approximately 8 years of data on the diet and health of 49, post-menopausal American women, the researchers found that the balance of saturated versus unsaturated fats did not appear to affect heart disease risk, whereas the consumption of trans fat was associated with significantly increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Similarly, the authors of a review of dietary studies concluded that there was insufficient evidence to establish a causal link between consumption of saturated fats and coronary heart disease risk.
It has been suggested that France's high red wine consumption is a primary factor in the trend. This hypothesis was expounded in a 60 Minutes broadcast in It is believed that one of the components of red wine potentially related to this effect is resveratrol ;  however, the authors of a study concluded that the amount of resveratrol absorbed by drinkers of red wine is small enough that it is unlikely to explain the paradox.
Research suggests that moderate drinkers are less likely to suffer heart attacks than are abstainers or heavy drinkers see alcohol and cardiovascular disease for details. Therefore, the alcohol in wine might be a factor in the French paradox. However, the difference between U. There is a lack of medical consensus about whether moderate consumption of beer, wine, or distilled spirits has a stronger association with longevity.
Of ten major studies, three found stronger evidence for wine, three for beer, three for liquor, and one study found no difference between alcoholic beverages. Wines, particularly red wines, are a source of low levels of resveratrol. High doses of resveratrol have been linked to longevity and cancer prevention in other species.
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Oligomeric procyanidins have been proposed to offer protection to human vascular cells,  with other research indicating that red wine polyphenols reduce absorption of malondialdehyde which is implicated in elevating levels of low-density lipoprotein in the onset of arteriosclerosis. However, once digested and metabolized, the role of polyphenols to assert possible health effects in humans cannot be determined. In his book Cholesterol and The French Paradox , Frank Cooper argues that the French paradox is due to the lack of hydrogenated and trans fats in the French diet.
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But the American diet includes greater amounts of saturated fats made via hydrogenating vegetable oils which include longer and carbon fatty acids. In addition, these hydrogenated fats include small quantities of trans fats which may have associated health risks.
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Clower tends to downplay the common beliefs that wine consumption and smoking are greatly responsible for the French paradox. While a higher percentage of French people smoke, this is not greatly higher than the U. Mireille Guiliano , author of the bestseller French Women Don't Get Fat ,  agrees that the weight differences are not due to French smoking habits. She points out that the smoking rates for women in France and the U. In his book In Defense of Food , Michael Pollan suggests the explanation is not any single nutrient, but the combination of nutrients found in unprocessed food; not any one nutrient, nor the amount of carbohydrates or fats or proteins, but the whole length and breadth of nutrients found in "natural" foods as opposed to "processed" foods.
It has been suggested that a higher intake of fruit and vegetables in the diet may lower the risk of cardiovascular diseases. One proposed explanation of the French paradox regards possible effects epigenetic or otherwise of dietary improvements in the first months and years of life, exerted across multiple generations.
Following defeat in the Franco-Prussian War in , the French government introduced an aggressive nutritional program providing high quality foods to pregnant women and young children with the aim of fortifying future generations of soldiers the program was implemented about three decades prior to an analogous initiative in England in response to the Boer War. It has been suggested that the particular timing of this historical intervention might help explain the relatively low rates of obesity and heart disease found in France.
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French Translation of “nutrition” | Collins English-French Dictionary
Main article: Alcohol and cardiovascular disease. Main article: Resveratrol. Drink portal.
British Medical Journal. Theatre In History. University of Arkansas Press. Simini The Lancet.
The New York Times. Alcohol: A History. University of North Carolina Press Books. Shannon; Sonia S. Anand Arch Intern Med. Clinical Biochemistry. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. Retrieved 8 June EFSA Journal. Cholesterol and The French Paradox.